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Low T Research

The Following are Medical Studies as Reported -

*Specific results are not guaranteed. Individual results may vary.

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The effects of low testosterone have been studied at some of the worlds most prestigious institutes and universities; first below is a medical news report regarding a recent research at the University of Edinburgh followed by five research abstracts sourced from the United States National Institute of Health (NIH) Medical Library. These are just a few of the studies that support increasing low testosterone levels.

It should be remembered that while some of the positive effects of increased testosterone levels are seen and felt within months of treatment start, many benefits are far more subtle yet these as studies support are the ones that lower mortality rates. When you combine both seen and unseen benefits it is clear that testosterone replacement therapy is not only backed by medical research but by tens of thousands of men whose lives have been greatly improved.

Low Testosterone Level Linked to Chronic Diseases in Men

News release on Scientific Reports volume 8, Article number: 5897 / April 12, 2018
Low levels of testosterone in men could be associated with chronic diseases such as diabetes and hypertension, even among those 40 years of age and younger, new research has found. The total levels of the hormone is commonly associated with just sexual health and muscle mass preservation. The new study, published in the journal Scientific Reports, suggests that the declining levels of testosterone "could be contributing to a silent decline in overall health and increased risk for chronic disease", said lead author of the study Mark Peterson, Assistant Professor at the University of Michigan in the US. Using data from the US National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, the research team examined the extent to which hypogonadism, which occurs when the body's sex glands produce little or no hormones, is prevalent among men of all ages. The team examined the prevalence of nine chronic conditions, including Type-2 diabetes, arthritis, cardiovascular disease, stroke, pulmonary disease, high triglycerides, hypercholesterolemia, hypertension and clinical depression among more than 2,000 men in the survey who were at least 20 years old. The researchers studied the prevalence of multimorbidity, or when two or more of the chronic conditions were present, among three age groups (young, middle-aged and older men) with and without testosterone deficiency. They found that low total testosterone was associated with multimorbidity in all age groups -- but it was more prevalent among young and older men with testosterone deficiency. "Men should be concerned about declining total testosterone, even if it has not reached a level to warrant a clinical diagnosis (less than 300 nanograms per deciliter)," Peterson said.

Testosterone Injections May be Safer and More effective than Creams, Gels or Patches*

American Journal of Physiology-Endocrinology and Metabolism, April 21, 2015 - Researchers at the Malcom Randall VA Medical Center in Gainesville, Florida analyzed 3,703 older men taking testosterone, comparing differences in how methods of administration affected the men’s health. The study found that men who received testosterone injections achieved a “moderate” increase in muscle strength compared to only a “modest” benefit achieved from creams, gels, and patches. Men have a major concern about increasing frailty and testosterone can protect this by increasing muscle strength and bone density, the study found that [testosterone] injection works best for this issue. Additionally the study showed that Creams, Gels and Patches elevate the hormone dihydrotestosterone (DHT) at far greater levels than injections even though testosterone injection delivers more testosterone thus making injections a safer delivery method as it is believed that significantly elevated levels of DHT may have negative health consequences. More research is required.   

Stephen E Borst, Joshua F Yarrow

Low Testosterone Levels Could Raise Diabetes Risk for Men*

University of Edinburgh (Med – May 4, 2012

Low levels of testosterone in men could increase their risk of developing diabetes, a study suggests.

Scientists have found that low testosterone levels are linked to a resistance to insulin, the hormone that controls blood sugar levels. The study is the first to directly show how low testosterone levels in fat tissue can be instrumental in the onset of Type 2 diabetes. Testosterone is present throughout the body. Low testosterone levels are linked to obesity, a known risk factor for diabetes. It acts on fat cells through molecules known as androgen receptors. These enable the testosterone to activate genes linked to obesity and diabetes……The research showed that mice in which the function of testosterone in fat tissue was impaired were more likely to be insulin resistant than mice in which the role of testosterone was not hindered.

The study showed that insulin resistance occurred in mice when the function of testosterone was impaired regardless of body weight.

The findings from the University of Edinburgh could also help explain why older men are more at risk of developing diabetes, because testosterone levels fall in men as they age.

Dr Kerry McInnes, from the University of Edinburgh's Endocrinology Unit, said: "We know that men with low testosterone levels are more likely to become obese, and as a develop diabetes. This study shows that low testosterone is a risk factor for diabetes no matter how much a person weighs. As men age their testosterone levels lower. This, along with increasing obesity, will increase the incidence of diabetes."

Testosterone-replacement therapy improves symptoms of metabolic syndrome*

Endocrine Society June 25, 2012 — Hormone-replacement therapy significantly improved symptoms of metabolic syndrome associated with testosterone deficiency in men, a new study from Germany finds. The results will be presented June 25 at The Endocrine Society's 94th Annual Meeting in Houston. Metabolic syndrome comprises a cluster of complications that can increase the risk of heart and blood-vessel disease as well as type 2 diabetes. These complications include excess body weight, especially around the waist and torso, and abnormal concentrations of fat in the blood, known as lipids. In particular, patients with metabolic syndrome have high blood levels of the so-called bad fats, or triglycerides and low-density lipoproteins, and insufficient amounts of the healthy fats known as high-density lipoproteins. In addition, they often have high blood pressure and sugar, or glucose, levels………"We hypothesized that long-term testosterone improves metabolic syndrome, and found that this intervention improved all three components of obesity, including waist circumference, weight, and body-mass index; diabetes control; poor lipids profile; and blood pressure," Yassin said. 

Aksam A. Yassin, M.D., Ph.D., Ed.D., chairman of the Institute of Urology & Andrology in Norderstedt-Hamburg, Germany. 

Restorative increases in serum testosterone levels are significantly correlated to improvements in sexual functioning.*

Journal of Andrology Nov-Dec, 2004

Seftel AD, Mack RJ, Secrest AR, Smith TM.

Source: Department of Urology, Case Western Reserve University, University Hospitals of Cleveland, Cleveland VA Medical Center

Abstract: It is recognized that testosterone (T) levels decrease in men with age, as does sexual function. We hypothesize that T supplementation in hypogonadal men with sexual dysfunction will restore certain elements of sexual function. ……..A significant increase from baseline in the frequency of nighttime erections was also noted ………..Finally, a significant increase from baseline in the frequency of intercourse was evidenced ……. Similar results were seen ………at day 90 for sexual desire and nighttime erections vs placebo. These data demonstrate a clear relationship between restoring serum T concentrations and improvement in certain parameters of sexual function. …….

Journal of the American Heart Association.*

April 2012

Background—Low testosterone is an independent predictor of reduced exercise capacity andpoor clinical outcomes in patients with heart failure (HF). We sought to determine if testosterone therapy improves exercise capacity in patients with stable chronic HF.


In patients with moderate to severe HF, testosterone supplementation improves exercise capacity and metabolic indices. Testosterone is a promising therapy to improve exercise capacity in heart failure patients…...

Testosterone improves spatial memory in men with Alzheimer disease and mild cognitive impairment.*

Cherrier MM, Matsumoto AM, Amory JK, Asthana S, Bremner W, Peskind ER, Raskind MA, Craft S. Neurology. 2005 Jun 28;64(12):2063-8.

Source: Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, University of Washington School of Medicine, Seattle, WA, USA.


OBJECTIVE: To determine the efficacy of testosterone (T) supplementation on cognition in a sample of men with Alzheimer disease (AD) or mild cognitive impairment (MCI).

METHODS: Fifteen patients with AD and 17 patients with MCI aged 63 to 85 years completed a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study. Nineteen participants received weekly intramuscular (IM) injections of 100 mg T enanthate and 13 participants received weekly injections of placebo (saline) for 6 weeks. Cognitive evaluations using a battery of neuropsychological tests were conducted at baseline, week 3, and week 6 of treatment and again after 6 weeks of washout.

CONCLUSION: Testosterone supplementation may benefit selective cognitive functions in men with Alzheimer disease and mild cognitive impairment.

High Serum Testosterone Is Associated With Reduced Risk of Cardiovascular Events in Elderly Men.*

Journal of American Cardiology 2011

Claes Ohlsson, MD, PhD*, Elizabeth Barrett-Connor, MD{ddagger}, Shalender Bhasin, MD, PhD§, Eric Orwoll, MD, PhD||, Fernand Labrie, MD, PhD¶, Magnus K. Karlsson, MD, PhD#, Östen Ljunggren, MD, PhD**, Liesbeth Vandenput, PharmD, PhD*, Dan Mellström, MD, PhD* and Åsa Tivesten, MD, PhD{dagger},*

* Centre for Bone and Arthritis Research, Institute of Medicine, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden
{dagger}Wallenberg Laboratory for Cardiovascular Research, Institute of Medicine, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden
{ddagger}Department of Family and Preventive Medicine, School of Medicine, University of California San Diego, La Jolla, California
§Section of Endocrinology, Diabetes, and Nutrition, Boston School of Medicine and Boston Medical Center, Boston, Massachusetts
|| Bone and Mineral Unit, Oregon Health & Science University, Portland, Oregon
¶ Laboratory of Molecular Endocrinology and Oncology, Laval University, Québec, Québec, Canada
# Department of Clinical Sciences and Orthopaedics, Lund University, Malmö, Sweden
** Department of Medical Sciences, University of Uppsala, Uppsala, Sweden

Objectives: We tested the hypothesis that serum total testosterone and sex hormone–binding globulin (SHBG) levels predict cardiovascular (CV) events in community-dwelling elderly men.

Background: Low serum testosterone is associated with increased adiposity, an adverse metabolic risk profile, and atherosclerosis….

Conclusions: High serum testosterone predicted a reduced 5-year risk of CV events in elderly men.

Effects of aging on muscle fibre type and size.*

Sports Medicine. 2004;34(12):809-24.

Source: Department of Kinesiology, The College of William & Mary, Center for Excellence in Aging and Geriatric Health, Williamsburg, Virginia 23187-8795, USA.

Aging has been associated with a loss of muscle mass that is referred to as 'sarcopenia'. This decrease in muscle tissue begins around the age of 50 years, but becomes more dramatic beyond the 60th year of life. Loss of muscle mass among the aged directly results in diminished muscle function. Decreased strength and power contribute to the high incidence of accidental falls observed among the elderly and can compromise quality of life. Moreover, sarcopenia has been linked to several chronic afflictions that are common among the aged, including osteoporosis, insulin resistance and arthritis. Loss of muscle fibre number is the principal cause of sarcopenia, although fibre atrophy--particularly among type II fibres--is also involved. Several physiological mechanisms have been implicated in the development of sarcopenia. Denervation results in the loss of motor units and thus, muscle fibres.
A decrease in the production of anabolic hormones such as testosterone, growth hormone and insulin-like growth factor-1 impairs the capacity of skeletal muscle to incorporate amino acids and synthesise proteins. An increase in the release of catabolic agents, specifically interleukin-6, amplifies the rate of muscle wasting among the elderly. Given the demographic trends evident in most western societies, i.e. increased number of those considered aged, management interventions for sarcopenia must become a major goal of the healthcare profession.

Additional Research:

Note: hypogonadal men are defined as those who suffer from Testosterone deficiency (Low T).

Testosterone Treatment Is Associated with Reduced Mortality in Men with Low Serum Testosterone Levels*

Endocr Rev, Vol. 32 (03_MeetingAbstracts): P1-772 –June 2011
Molly M Shores, MD2, Nicholas L Smith, PhD1, Christopher W Forsberg, PhD1, Bradley D Anawalt, MD1 and Alvin M Matsumoto, MD1

Department of Epidemiology (NLS,CWF,BDA,AMM), University of Washington, Seattle, WA
Department of Mental Health (MMS), VA Puget Sound Health Care System, Seattle, WA

Low serum testosterone levels have been associated with increased mortality in older men (1-8). However, the influence of testosterone treatment on mortality in men with low testosterone is unknown. Objective: To examine the association between testosterone-treatment and mortality in men with low testosterone and to investigate whether prevalent diabetes, coronary heart disease, or age modify this relationship……..

Conclusions: Our data suggest that testosterone-treatment in men with low testosterone levels is associated with decreased mortality, particularly in men ages 40-65 years old and in diabetic men. Given the observational study design, residual confounding may be an issue and these results must be interpreted appropriately.

Low testosterone 'linked to increased risk of rheumatoid arthritis in men'*

April 4, 2013 —  Men with rheumatoid arthritis may experience a fall in their testosterone levels in the years preceding their diagnosis, a new study suggests.

To shed light on the subject, researchers at Lund University in Sweden looked at data from the Swedish Malmo Preventive Medicine Programme, which tracked the health of more than 33,000 people from 1974 to 2004. They also had access to the results of blood samples from 104 men who developed rheumatoid arthritis and 174 men who did not.
These samples were taken between one and 28 years prior to diagnosis with rheumatoid arthritis, with the average sample obtained almost 13 years previously.
Publishing their findings in the Annals of the Rheumatic Diseases, the study authors revealed that men with lower levels of testosterone in their blood were more likely to develop rheumatoid arthritis, even after known risk factors for the autoimmune disease - such as smoking and body mass index - had been taken into account……

The study authors concluded that hormonal changes may precede the onset of rheumatoid arthritis, with a decrease in testosterone possibly reducing the body's ability to dampen inflammation.

Long-Term Testosterone Treatment for Men Results in Reduced Weight and Waist Size.*

ScienceDaily June 23, 2012

In testosterone-deficient men, major weight loss was an added benefit of testosterone replacement therapy for most of the patients who participated in a new study. The results will be presented June 23 at The Endocrine Society's 94th Annual Meeting in Houston. "The substantial weight loss found in our study -- an average of 36 pounds -- was a surprise," said the study's lead author, Farid Saad, PhD, of Berlin-headquartered Bayer Pharma. Although prior studies using testosterone therapy in testosterone-deficient men consistently show changes in body composition, such as increased lean mass and decreased fat mass, Saad said the net effect on weight seemed unchanged in those studies. However, Saad said their study, which took place in Germany, had a longer follow-up by at least two years….The investigators restored testosterone to normal levels in 255 testosterone-deficient ("hypogonadal") men, whose average age was nearly 61 (range, 38 to 83 years). Treatment lasted for up to five years…… Patients did not follow a controlled diet or standard exercise program but received advice to improve their lifestyle habits.

On average, the men weighed 236 pounds before beginning testosterone treatment and 200 pounds after treatment (106.2 versus 90 kilograms), the authors reported. Weight loss was reportedly continuous, with an average reduction in body weight ranging from about 4 percent after one year of treatment to more than 13 percent after five years.

In addition, men lost an average of nearly 3.5 inches (8.8 centimeters) around their waist.*

Testosterone replacement therapy improves mood in hypogonadal men--a clinical research center study.*

Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism. 1996 Oct;81(10):3578-83.

Wang C, Alexander G, Berman N, Salehian B, Davidson T, McDonald V, Steiner B, Hull L, Callegari C, Swerdloff RS.

Department of Medicine, Harbor-UCLA, Torrance, CA

The effect of testosterone (T) replacement on changes in mood was studied for 60 days in 51 hypogonadal men…..The following mood parameters were assessed using a 7-point Likert rating scale: angry, alert, irritable, full of pep (energy), sad/blue, tired, friendly, nervous, and well/good. When compared with the baseline period, T replacement led to significant decreases in anger.., irritability…, sadness.., tiredness…, and nervousness…, and significant improvement in energy level.., friendliness…, and sense of well-being… in all subjects as a group…. We conclude that T replacement therapy in hypogonadal men improved their positive mood parameters, such as energy, well/good feelings, and friendliness and decreased negative mood parameters including anger, nervousness, and irritability, …..

Effects of testosterone replacement on muscle mass and muscle protein synthesis in hypogonadal men--a clinical research center study.*

I G Brodsky, P Balagopal and K S Nair

Author Affiliations

Department of Medicine, University of Vermont College of Medicine, Burlington, USA. October 1996 Brodsky et al. 81 (10): 3469


Testosterone replacement in hypogonadism has long been known to promote nitrogen retention and increase body density, but the mechanisms of nitrogen retention and body composition changes are poorly defined. We measured body composition and muscle protein synthesis in five hypogonadal men before and 6 months after initiating testosterone replacement. …In all subjects there was an increase in fat-free mass (average, 15%; range, 10-22%; P = 0.02) and a decrease in fat mass (-11%; range, -0.4% to -22.0%; P = 0.03). Muscle mass also increased in everybody (mean, 20%; range, 11-32%; P = 0.04) such that 65% of the increase in fat-free mass could be attributed to accretion of muscle. The accumulation of muscle was associated with a 56% (P = 0.015) increase in the fractional synthesis rate of mixed skeletal muscle proteins and a trend toward a similar increase in the fractional synthesis rate of myosin heavy chain (46%; P = 0.098). We conclude that testosterone replacement in hypogonadal men enhanced skeletal muscle mass by stimulating the muscle protein synthesis rate.

Testosterone Replacement Increases Fat-Free Mass and Muscle Size in Hypogonadal Men.*


Division of Endocrinology, Metabolism, and Molecular Medicine, Charles R. Drew University of Medicine and Science (S.B., B.C.), Los Angeles, California 90059; the Departments of Medicine,Pediatrics, and Radiology, Harbor-University of California-Los Angeles Medical Center (N.B., J.P., W.P.L., R.C.), Torrance, California 90509; Stable Isotope Laboratory, Washington University School of Medicine (K.E.Y.), St. Louis, Missouri 63110; and El Camino College (T.W.S., T.J.B.), Torrance, California 90504


The objective of this study was to determine the effects of replacement doses of testosterone on fat-free mass and muscle size in healthy hypogonadal men in the setting of controlled nutritional intake and exercise level.

Our results demonstrate that testosterone replacement has substantial effects on body composition…….. Muscle size increased in both the arm and leg, even though the subjects did not undertake resistance exercise other than their activities of daily life……..

Low serum testosterone and increased mortality in men with coronary heart disease*

Heart 2010;96:1821-1825 doi:10.1136/hrt.2010.195412

Sheffield, UK - Among men who have coronary heart disease, mortality was doubled in those with low testosterone levels compared with those who had normal levels, a new observational study has shown. Dr Chris J Malkin (Royal Hallamshire Hospital, Sheffield, UK) and colleagues report their findings online October 19, 2010 in Heart.

"This is the fourth epidemiologic study to have shown that low testosterone is a marker of early mortality," senior author Dr Kevin S Channer (Royal Hallamshire Hospital, Sheffield, UK) told heartwire. "But most crucially, it is the first in men with vascular disease; all of the other epidemiologic follow-up studies of testosterone have excluded this patient population."

In an accompanying editorial, Drs Ronald CW Ma and Peter CY Tong (Prince of Wales Hospital, Shatin, Hong Kong) describe the history of studies on testosterone and cardiovascular disease and say the new trial "adds to the emerging picture" by making it clear that the link between reduced testosterone and increased mortality extends to subjects with established cardiovascular disease.